Sunday, 02 October, 2022

Pharma terminologies


Pharma Important Definitions 

Normality 

Normality is a measure of concentration equal to gram equivalent weight per litre of solution. Gram equivalent weight is the measure of the reactive capacity of a molecule.Normality also known as equivalent of a solution.

Molarity 

Molarity is the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Mole fraction

Mole fraction is a unit of concentration. It is defined to be equal to number of moles of a component divided by the total number of moles of a solution.

pH, pH Range and pH Scale

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Solution with high concentration of H+ ions have a low pH. Solution with low concentration of H+ ions have high pH. pH scale is measure of acidity or alkalinity of water soluble substances. pH stands for potential of hydrogen.

Scientists Say: pH | Science News for Students

Buffer

Buffer is a solution containing either a weak acid and its salts or a weak base and its its salt which is resistant to changes in pH.                                  or
Buffer is an aqueous solution of either a weak acid and its conjugate base or weak base and its conjugate acid.
Buffers are used to maintain a stable pH in a solution, as they can neutralize small quantities of additional acid or base. buffers are also called hydrogen ion buffer.

Dissolution Test

Dissolution is a process in which a solid substances solubilizes in a given solvent. mass transfer from the solid surface to the liquid phase.

Tablet Dissolution Apparatus Manual - Labindia Analytical ...
 Dissolution test apparatus

Disintegration time

Disintegration time is the time required for a dosage form to breakup into granules of specified size or smaller under carefully specified condition.

Disintegration Test Apparatus - View Specifications & Details of ...
Disintegration test apparatus 

Solution  

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvents.
 Solute + solvent = Solution


Meniscus

A meniscus is the curvature of the surface of the water.

  • Concave meniscus – colorless solution – lower meniscus
  • Convex meniscus –  Colored solution – Upper meniscus


Ultrasonication

Ultarsonication is the process of Dispersing, Disrupting or inactivating biological materials, removal of air bubbles in solution by use of sound wave energy.

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Ultrasonication

Glass wares in Laboratory 

There are different materials used in making laboratory glasses such as

  • Borosilicate glasses
  • Quartz glasses
  • Soda lime glasses
  • Actinic glasses 

Class A glassware: for Accuracy (most accurate)
Class B glassware; Accuracy when not required or critical

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Accurate glassware
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Accurate glassware

                                               


Filtration techniques

Filtration is a technique used to separate solids from liquids, in the act of pouring a mixture into a membrane (filter paper) that allows the passage of liquid (the filtrate) and results in the collection of solids.
Two filtration techniques

  • Gravity filtration
  • Vaccum filtration  
File:Gravity Filtration.jpg - Wikimedia Commons
Gravity filtration set 
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Vaccun filtration

                                         


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